Heavy rain pounded the central Chinese province of Henan on Tuesday, bursting the banks of major rivers, flooding the streets of a dozen cities and trapping subway passengers waist-high in floodwaters.
Henan, a populous province double the size of Austria, has been hit by storms since the weekend in an unusually active rainy season.
No deaths or casualties have been reported, but the daily lives of the province's 94 million people have been upended by transport closures.
In Zhengzhou, the capital of Henan on the banks of the Yellow River, more than 200 millimetres of rain fell in one hour on Tuesday, forcing the city to stop all subway train services.
Dramatic video shared on social media showed commuters waist-deep in murky floodwaters on a subway train and an underground station turned into a large, churning pool.
Henan is a major logistics hub but train services were suspended, while many highways were closed and flights delayed or cancelled.
In Ruzhou, a city southwest of Zhengzhou, streets have been turned into torrents, sweeping away cars and other vehicles, footage on social media showed.
The State Grid Zhengzhou Power Supply Co. said a downtown substation was forced to shut down because of the rain.
Thousands of residents displaced
More than 10,000 residents of Henan province were moved to shelters, the official Xinhua News Agency reported.
Some people were spending the night in their workplaces or checked into hotels.
Wang Guirong, a 56-year-old restaurant manager, said she planned to sleep on the couch in her restaurant after being told there was no power in her neighbourhood.
"I have lived in Zhengzhou all my life and have never seen such a heavy rainstorm as today," Wang said.
A rising Yi River also threatened to hit the Longmen Grottoes, a UNESCO World Heritage site featuring millennium-old Buddhist statues etched into limestone cliffs near the city of Luoyang.
Like the Longmen Grottoes, the Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng city, famous in the West for its martial arts, has been temporarily shut.
Also in Dengfeng, an aluminum alloy plant exploded on Tuesday as water from a river surged into the factory.
Nearly 50 cm of rainfall in Lushan
At least 31 large and medium-sized reservoirs in the province have exceeded their warning levels.
From Saturday to Tuesday, 3,535 weather stations in Henan saw rainfall exceed 50 millimetres, of which 1,614 registered levels above 100 millimetres and 151 above 250 millimetres.
The highest was in Lushan city, which saw 498 millimetres of rain, according to the provincial weather bureau.
Rain is forecast to stop by Thursday.
China experiences regular flooding during the summer months, but the growth of cities and conversion of farmland into subdivisions has raised the costs of such events.